1st Battalion 22nd Infantry


The San Isisdro Campaign

The First Northern Expedition


Campaign streamer awarded to the 22nd Infantry
for its service in the San Isidro Campaign



Company H of the 22nd Infantry
Color tinted photo, in which the artist has incorrectly given the Soldiers blue uniforms.
It appears that a number of men are wearing the model 1883 campaign shirt, which would have been
dark blue, however, their trousers would have been khaki in color.

According to the date in the caption of the photo, this was taken one week before the Regiment
began the First Northern Expedition.

Photo from:
An Illustrated And Descriptive Art Collection Of America's New Possessions
Chicago, Ill. 1902




Ed., John W. French was a Lieutenant Colonel of the 23rd Infantry,
and was made Brevet Colonel of that organization
on August 27, 1898. When Colonel Harry Egbert was killed
at Malinta on March 26, 1899, French was promoted
to Colonel of the 22nd Infantry, transferred,
and assumed command of the 22nd Infantry Regiment.

The newspaper article at right indicates the promotion
of French, and also reports that Colonel Egbert's son,
who had been serving as a Private in the 22nd Infantry,
had been granted a commission as a 2nd Lieutenant,
remaining with the 22nd Infantry, now as an officer.


Article from the New York Times March 28, 1899





Major General H. W. Lawton, commanding. Troops engaged:
1st division, 8th army corps, consisting of:
22nd infantry; 1st North Dakota volunteer infantry; one squadron 4th cavalry (dismounted);
two field guns of 6th artillery, and two mountain guns Hawthorne's separate battery.
Detached from 2nd division, 8th army corps:
2 battalions 3rd infantry; 2 battalions 2nd Oregon volunteer infantry; 13th Minnesota volunteer infantry;
one troop 4th cavalry (mounted), and one gun Utah volunteer light artillery.

The object of this expedition was to drive the insurgent forces from the country between the Rio Grande de Pampanga
and the Bulacan mountains, with San Miguel, and afterward San Isidro, the new capital, as the objective.
The troops of the 1st division, in addition to two battalions of the 3rd infantry, were assembled at La Loma church
on the evening of April 21. The plan of campaign was as follows: the main column to march from La Loma to Novaliches,
to San Jose, and thence to Norzagaray; a flanking column composed of the remaining troops detached from the 2nd division
to march from Bocaue and to join the main column at Norzagaray; the united command to proceed to San Miguel.

Simultaneously with the junction of the two forces at Norzagaray, General MacArthur, commanding 2nd division, 8th army corps,
was to attack Calumpit, to capture it, to proceed northeasterly, and to form a junction with the 1st division at San Miguel.
The regiment marched to La Loma church on the afternoon of April 21. Each man carried one hundred rounds of ammunition;
rations for ten days, and an additional hundred rounds of ammunition were carried on bull carts, three bull carts to two companies.
In anticipation of bad roads, nothing was allowed on the bull carts but rations, ammunition, and the least possible equipment for officers.

At five o'clock in the morning, April 22, the main column marched northward toward Novaliches. South of the town
the insurgents were encountered in force, occupying positions on both sides of the road leading into the town. In the resulting action,
the insurgents were driven from their positions, through the town, and across the Rio de Tuliahan. The division occupied the town
at ten o'clock in the morning, finding it deserted, and everything of value, including rice, removed. The regiment formed the outpost line
to the northeast. During the afternoon, a force of insurgents, intrenched on a hillside near the San Mateo road, opened fire on the pickets;
this fire was temporarily silenced by shell and shrapnel; but from different positions the enemy kept up a desultory fire during the night.

At five o'clock in the morning, April 23, the column moved toward San Jose. Beyond Novaliches, the road became a mere footpath,
leading over hills and through valleys. In the intense heat, many bulls were exhausted, thus impeding the progress of the train.
A native guide intentionally led the column several miles in the wrong direction. Late in the afternoon the regiment, in the advance,
reached the ford crossing the Pasumkambor river, two miles south of San Jose, and bivouacked during the night. A tropical rainstorm,
lasting from 9 to 11 p.m,, added to the discomfort of the exhausted command and necessitated sleeping in pools of water and mud.

At 8 o'clock in the morning, April 24, the 1st battalion of the regiment in advance entered San Jose without opposition.
Transportation was the difficult problem of this campaign. Rough trails and great heat made it necessary to unhitch the carabaos
at frequent intervals, to lead them to water holes, and to allow them to soak and wallow in order to recover from their exhaustion.
The presence of an entire battalion was required with the regimental train, and even with this assistance the train did not arrive in San Jose
until after dark. The bulls were completely exhausted; the carts were pulled in by soldiers.

April 25, the march was resumed, the regiment acting as rear guard. The difficulties of transportation hourly became greater.
A number of bulls died from sheer exhaustion. Men, burdened with rifle, belt and blanket roll, yoked themselves to carts and pulled cart after cart
up the long slopes. Additional hardships were met with ever-increasing zeal. On the night of this day, the command bivouacked at Norzagaray,
this town having been captured on the previous day by the Bocaue column. On the 26th, rain again added to the difficulties and hardships;
at ten o'clock at night the regiment bivouacked in water-soaked rice fields at Angat. Pending the outcome of a native peace commission
in Manila and awaiting rations, the command remained at Angat until April 30. From the 27th to the 30th, companies B and D of the regiment
were detached and on outpost duty at Norzagaray.

May 1st, the command marched on San Raphael, the regiment moving on the south bank of the Bagbag.
After considerable opposition, principally on the northern side, the town was occupied.

May 2, the regiment captured and occupied Bustos. The town was strongly defended; but after a combined front and flank attack
on the stone barricades, the insurgent forces were compelled to retreat. Young's scouts, with this part of the column, crossed the river
and entered Baliuag at noon. These important towns had been occupied by an insurgent division under General Gregorio del Pilar,
and their comparatively easy capture was a sign of the demoralization existing in the Filipino armies.

Wounded, May 2nd, 1899: Private James Frisbie, company E.

May 3, the regiment crossed the river and took quarters in the native houses of Baliuag. A great quantity of rice that had been stored
by the insurgents was captured in this town; 150,000 bushels were issued to starving non-combatants, who, in the frenzy of hunger,
grovelled in the storehouses, cramming their mouths with the raw grains.

May 4 to May 14, company M occupied Quingua, charged with keeping open the line of communication between Baliuag and Malolos.
While the division remained in Baliuag, a company of the regiment was sent daily on outpost to Bustos. On May 7, the natives of Baliuag
selected a mayor, the first native holding office in the Philippines under the jurisdiction of the United States. This liberal policy of self-government
allowed the Filipinos by the United States was eagerly welcomed by the natives; oaths of allegiance were freely taken. Later, it was discovered
that even greater freedom was used in violating these sacred promises. The first mayor of Baliuag came in daily contact with officers
of the United States forces; all information gained by him was promptly reported to the insurgent chiefs. When at last this treachery was discovered,
he was tried and sentenced to a term of imprisonment. Another system showing the liberality of the United States to the Filipino insurgents
was begun while the division remained at Baliuag. On May 13, proclamations were issued in Spanish and Tagalog offering payment
of thirty dollars (Mexican) for each insurgent rifle surrendered to American officials.

Manila, May 13, 1899—9:55 a. m.

LAWTON: You are authorized to pay $30 (Mexican) for each serviceable rifle delivered to you
by disbanded detachments of the insurgent army or others. This order should be known as widely as possible.

(Ed., At that time $30 Mexican was equal to about $15 US.)

May 13, the division scouts, supported by two companies of infantry, captured and occupied San Miguel. On the previous day,
an insurgent officer had entered the lines and, at his own request, had been sent to Manila to arrange for a safe-conduct for a commission
authorized to make terms of peace. This was believed to be only a scheme to delay the American advance until the beginning of the rainy season.
May 14, the main body of the division moved from Baliuag, leaving the 2nd battalion of the regiment behind to garrison this strategic point.
May 17, the 1st and 3rd battalions, after making a forced march on the afternoon of the 16th, took part in the capture of San Isidro.
They formed the left of the battle line, and by a rapid advance, drove the insurgents from the city, the left of the line entering at 9:30 a. m.
The insurgents made only a feeble resistance. Natives remaining in San Isidro reported that Aguinaldo had made his headquarters there
from the time Malolos had fallen until shortly before the American forces occupied San Isidro. It was also learned that
thirteen American prisoners, among them Lieut. Gilmore of the navy, had been confined here while the Filipinos held the town.


Red line shows the northward advance
from Manila to San Isidro,
of Lawton's 1st Division,
which included the 22nd Infantry,
April 22 to May 17, 1899.

After taking San Isidro,
the 22nd Infantry marched south along
the river Rio Grande de la Pampanga,
and linked up with MacArthur's
2nd Division at Arayat on May 21.

The entire Regiment assembled
at Candaba on May 22, and on May 23,
several companies of the 22nd
were sent to San Luis.

Green line shows the advance
of MacArthur's 2nd Division
from Manila to Arayat.

Original map from the 1904
Regimental history

Colorized and routes added by the website editor



Hot Springs, Va., May 19, 1899.
OTIS, Manila:
Convey to General Lawton and the gallant men of his command
my congratulations upon their successful operations during the month,
resulting in the capture this morning of San Isidro

May 18, a peace commission, headed by General Gregorio del Pilar, entered San Isidro. They were escorted, by way of Baliuag, to Manila.
Arayat was designated as the next objective. Troops from the 2nd division, originally ordered to connect with the 1st division at San Miguel,
were ordered to make a junction at Arayat. On the afternoon of May 18, the 1st and 3rd battalions of the regiment, in brigade,
proceeded down the Rio Grande de Pampanga. At the barrio of San Fernando, an intrenched insurgent force was encountered.
The two battalions deployed under fire, forced the enemy across the river; but owing to the depth of the water, it was impossible to follow them.
The insurgents took a second position in trenches on the opposite river bank; an attempt was made to dislodge them with shrapnel;
but due to the extremely short range — less than two hundred yards — this fire proved ineffective. During the night the insurgents kept up
an annoying fire; at daylight, all but a few of them had abandoned their position.
The brigade moved at 5:15 a. m., May 19. After a slight skirmish, Cabiao was captured and occupied until the arrival of the main command,
from San Isidro, on the following day. May 21, the entire command, the 1st and 3rd battalions of the regiment in advance,
moved down the river and entered Arayat without opposition. The column of the 2nd division, from Calumpit, joined here.

May 22, the entire command moved down the river to Candaba. During the afternoon of the following day, heavy firing was heard
in the direction of San Miguel. The 1st battalion of the regiment was sent in this direction, but the swamp surrounding Candaba
prevented their going far enough to discover anything. Later, it was learned that ten companies of the 3rd infantry, marching from San Miguel
to Baliuag, had been attacked by considerable forces of the enemy at four different points, but had gallantly driven them off with severe losses.
The 2nd battalion of the regiment (22nd), garrisoning Baliuag, started to the assistance of the 3rd infantry, and after a rapid march,
arrived just as the insurgents were withdrawing from their last attack.

May 23, the troops belonging to the command were assigned to station. After a few slight changes, the regiment occupied the following places:
Headquarters and companies A, E, F, G, I, and K, Candaba; companies D and M, San Luis; companies B, C, H, and L, San Fernando.



Wounded in action, May 18, 1899:

Private Charles L. Diedel, company C;
Sergeant Peter Cosgrove and Private Carl A. Carlson, company H;
Private Simon Schuller, company L.

Died of wounds received in action:

Corporal Henry Langford, company L, May 18, 1899;
Private Carl A. Carlson, company H, May 20, 1899.



About this time our forces were greatly annoyed by their inability to locate small bands of harassing insurgents.
Outposts and scouting parties, investigating shots fired at them, found peaceful natives working the fields—agricultural implements, not guns,
in their hands. When a large force of Americans passed through a given section of country, only peaceful natives were seen;
if small detachments marched through the same country, they were constantly attacked. Eventually the belief prevailed that insurgent chieftains
had authorized warfare contrary to the rules of civilized nations; occasionally a native was caught wearing a uniform under his ordinary amigo clothes.
An order captured with other insurgent papers showed that this practice was authorized and ordered by the insurgent powers.

You, as well as the chiefs and officers under your orders, will give military instructions to the soldiers,
inculcating in them subordination and discipline, reading to them at least twice a day the penal laws,
making them understand their duties as defenders of the country, and inflicting upon them
the disciplinary punishments which they may deserve.
And, in order that the enemy may not be able to distinguish from a distance our soldiers when,
for instance, a plan is being made to surprise or ambush him, make them dress as country people,
not permitting all, including the officers, to wear uniforms.
In all movements you make with the command, you will always observe much prudence, employing
every kind of artifice to defeat the plans of the enemy.
May God preserve you many years.
Headquarters at Porac, the 12th of May, 1899.
The General in Chief of operations,

The practice of discarding the uniform enabled the insurgents to appear and to disappear at their convenience.
At times they appeared in the ranks of their own army as soldiers; immediately after, they were within the American lines
in the attitude of peaceful natives. This peculiarity of the war placed in the hands of the insurgent leaders a perfect system of espionage
and spy service that defeated, at times, our most carefully laid plans.

Captain Kreps and Company M, stationed at San Luis, were engaged in constant skirmishes with small rebel units.
The enemy would strike quickly and unexpectedly from concealed locations—fleeing before a counterattack could be made.
Kreps described the frustrations of fighting a guerrilla war: "Our forces were greatly annoyed by their inability to locate bands
of harassing Insurgents. Outposts and scouting parties, investigating shots fired at them, would only find
'peaceful natives' working in the fields.

"Whenever a large body of American troops passed through a certain area—only amicable Filipinos were to be seen.
However, small army detachments, marching along the same path, were constantly attacked.
"The belief prevailed that the Insurgent chieftains had authorized a type of warfare contrary to the rules of civilized nations.
Occasionally a native was caught wearing a rebel uniform under his ordinary clothes. And many American officers
began to take for granted that every Filipino was their enemy.

"The rebels were able to appear and disappear as they wished. At their own discretion they would attack as soldiers,
and an hour later were within American lines as peace loving farmers. The peculiarity of this war has placed in the hands
of the Insurgent leaders a perfect system of espionage—which often upset our carefully laid plans.

"Almost every village—captured or not—furnished Aguinaldo's soldiers with food and supplies. The Eighth Army Corps
began to believe that they were fighting the entire population of the Philippines....

"Day after scorching day, every soldier was armed, alert, and exposed to the roasting sun—which was almost as killing,
and often harder to bear, than the enemy Mausers. Devotion and duty increased with adversity. The corps was ready and eager
to confront the rebels as occasion demanded."

The Third Battalion of the Twenty-second Regiment was bivouacked at San Fernando to guard the railroad.
A long row of Insurgent trenches stretched across the northern front of the battalion's line. Practically every night,
the Filipinos kept up a constant barrage of rifle fire—and often launched nuisance raids against the American defenses.
Company H was kept busy pushing an armored railroad car—by hand—a mile to the front to repulse enemy attacks.

At the same time, all American forces were under most strict orders to protect peaceful natives. Despite these conditions,
officers and men fought and worked with unwearied constancy. Each one appeared to feel that upon his individual exertions
depended the issue of the campaigns. For three months, day after day, every man had been constantly under arms, exposed to scorching sun
almost as destructive and harder to bear than the enemy's fire. Devotion and duty increased with hardship;
all were eager to close with the adversary as occasion offered or duty required.

During the summer and fall of 1899, the companies at Candaba were constantly engaged in scouting. Continual rains
changed the surrounding swamps to lakes; scouting parties moved through waist-high water; at times only native bancas made scouting possible;
the work required of these companies was more than ordinarily severe.


Letter sent to the United States
from an officer in the 22nd Infantry.

It was sent by 1st Lieutenant
P.W. Davidson, who in 1902
would become the Regimental Quartermaster.

The letter was postmarked July 27, 1899
at Military Postal Station Number 1,
at Manila, Philippine Islands.

Philatelic cover courtesy of

stamp collection "PHILIPPINEN"


At the end of May, the 3rd battalion was assigned by General MacArthur to provost duty in San Fernando. This town was covered
on the north side by a long line of insurgent trenches, from which the Filipinos delivered nightly fire. On the mornings of June 16 and July 4,
the insurgents made determined attacks on all sides of the town; the 3rd battalion was posted in reserve along the railroad track.
Both attacks were repulsed with heavy losses to the insurgents. In addition to the provost duties, company H acted as escort to an armored car,
pushing it by hand a mile to the front on several occasions. The insurgents were particularly active during this period in tearing up the railroad track,
carrying away or hiding the rails. To the provost guard fell the task of repairing these damages.

July 23, companies D and M had a slight skirmish near San Luis.

August 9, the 3rd battalion participated in the general advance made by the 2nd division from San Fernando.
The line of battle was formed before daylight, fronting the insurgent works on the north side of the town.
As part of General Wheaton's brigade, the battalion occupied the center of the line east of the railroad. The engagement was begun
with artillery fire directed upon strong points of the enemy's line. Although taken by surprise, the insurgents promptly returned a spirited rifle fire.
This was answered by company volleys for about thirty minutes, when the fire of the enemy slackened.

The advance that followed is unequaled in hardships. Incessant, tropical rains had made the ground a swamp of mud and tangled,
waist-high grass. As the line floundered through, the fire from the insurgent trenches became more and more ragged, and finally ceased.
The trenches were found abandoned, but containing dead and wounded in sufficient numbers to show the punishment inflicted.
Beyond, the battalion found its way through the swamp of mud and water and through a labyrinth of sugar cane head-high.
Physical resources were taxed to the utmost. Intense heat and lack of air in the continuous canefields prostrated many men.
Six hours of marching were required to cover six miles of this terrible front. Forty men of the battalion succumbed to exhaustion
during the advance; one man carried from the field died without regaining consciousness.
On the night of August 9, the 3rd battalion bivouacked along the road at Calulut. August 11, the battalion, in brigade,
moved on Santa Rita, which was occupied without resistance.

Wounded in action, August 9, 1899:

Private Edward M. Neuman, company C;
Private William Kneisler, company H.


August 12, companies D and M repelled a night attack on San Luis. August 15, the 3rd battalion returned to San Fernando.
September 4, it relieved a volunteer regiment at Sindalon.

September 18 and 23, companies D and M dispersed two bands of ladrones near San Luis. On the 23rd, the 3rd battalion changed station
to Angeles, where it formed the right of the outpost line. September 28, the battalion was ordered to make a demonstration against the insurgents
intrenched north of Angeles, while the brigade moved on Porac. After a terrific bombardment of the trenches by artillery and the armored car,
the battalion advanced, forded the Rio Anayo under fire, and completely silenced the enemy's fire in an engagement lasting three quarters of an hour.
Afterward, under instructions, the battalion was withdrawn, and returned to Angeles.

Bridge north of Angeles. During his retreat Aguinaldo ordered the destruction
of nearly every bridge across every river and stream, to slow down the American advance.

Photo from the 1904 Regimental History


Ed., Following are After Action Reports concerning the activities of the 22nd Infantry
during engagements with the enemy on September 28, 1899:


Angeles, P. I., September 30, 1899. Adjutant-general Second Brigade,

Second Division, Eighth Army Corps.

Sir: I have the honor to report in detail operations at this place on the 28th instant.

My orders, verbally communicated by the brigade commander, were to hold the city of Angeles, or to make a vigorous demonstration
against the enemy in front while the main body of the brigade was moving on Porac.

My command for the assigned duty consisted of my Third Battalion, Twentysecond Infantry, Companies B, C, H, and L; two companies
Twelfth U. S. Infantry; a platoon First U. S. Artillery, two 3.2-inch field guns, one 1.65-inch field gun, under command of First Lieut. W. L. Kenly,
First Artillery; the armored cars, detachment U. S. Engineeers, 1 rapid-fire gun (6-pounder), 1 Hotchkiss revolving cannon, 1 Gatling gun,
and one Gatling gun at cemetery, under command of First Lieut. C. H. Bridges, Twenty-second Infantry.

The officers present and for duty with the Third Battalion, Twenty-second U. S. Infantry, were Maj. John A. Baldwin; First Lieut. O. R. Wolfe, adjutant;
Second Lieut. F. B. Kerr, quartermaster; Acting Assistant Surgeon Fitzgerald, First Lieut. W. H. Wassell, First Lieut. A. H. Huguet,
First Lieut. R. Sheldon, Second Lieut. J. Justice.

One company Twelfth Infantry was retained by the orders of the brigade commander on the south line, at the railroad about 1 miles from the city.

One company Twelfth Infantry, under command of Capt. C. H. Barth, I decided to retain in the city, with orders to reenforce the east flank of the city
if occasion required, the enemy being in force in front of the city.

The Gatling gun was retained, located on the walls of the Filipino cemetery, on the west flank of the city,
in compliance with the orders of the brigade commander.

Company L, Twenty-second Infantry, under command of Lieut. J. Justice, was located on the south or near side of the city, on the road leading east
and connecting with the Mabalaclat road, and on the other roads leading from Calulut, Bacolor, and Porac.

I directed Lieutenant Justice to take 20 men, when the action began, and move east from the city to the Barrios de Panday, explore that section,
and engage and dislodge any of the enemy found there.

At 4.45 a. m., September 28, 1899, Companies B, C, and H, numbering about 225 men, detachment Hospital Corps,
and Chino burden bearers, carrying extra boxes of ammunition, moved to the outpost on the Manila and Dagupan Railroad
at the Barrios de Talimanda and were deployed, two companies on the east and one company on the west of the railroad track.

The armored car was moved by hand pushing, upgrade, halfway to the partially destroyed railroad bridge across the Rio Anayo Balaga.

The platoon of artillery was located at the end of the street which passes brigade headquarters, and to the front and northwest.

At exactly 5.30 a. m., as ordered, Lieutenant Kenly and Lieutenant Bridges opened with a most terrific fire on the enemy.
For one-half hour this fire was well sustained and well directed.

From the east to the west, covering a semicircle of fully 5 miles, and extending to the front at ranges from 600 to 2,000 yards,
the entire section was swept by all the field guns, while the Gatling gun was employed, to use the coined phrase of Lieutenant Bridges,
"to comb" the bamboo thickets. This stage of the artillery fire was conducted in accordance with the brigade general's personal orders
given the officer in charge of the artillery. I waited until this fire ceased, simply causing the infantry to volley the bamboo thickets across the river
and observing the road leading from the railroad east and connecting with the wagon road to Mabalacat, at the junction of which road I believe
the enemy was intrenched in force.

About, this time Lieutenant Bridges, from his point of observation on the armored cars, reported that the enemy had left their main line
of supposed intrenchments about 1,800 yards distant, and were moving, to the number of between 300 and 400, down the railroad track,
and were deploying from the left to the right, as viewed from his position. Lieutenant Bridges kept up a vigorous fire
with the rapidfire and the Hotchkiss guns.

1 ordered Lieutenant Kenly to move his platoon of artillery up to the railroad.

All the artillery then extended the zone of fire to include both sides of the track to the front, at all ranges from 800 to 3,000 yards.

A few straggling Mauser and Remington bullets at long range were here felt.

After fifteen minutes' firing I advanced the artillery and armored cars and infantry to the river, where a vigorous action began,
at ranges varying from 500 to 2,000 yards. At about 6.30 a. m. I ordered the infantry forward to ford the river, and to advance
in the bamboo jungles and swamp of mud and water.

I sent my adjutant with orders to Lieutenant Wassell to guard well his right and reenforce his right platoon to overcome any flank fire from the enemy.

The fire of the enemy was felt on the south side of the river, and appeared to come, judging by sound, from 800 yards distance.
Many shots struck the armored car.

The enemy's fire during the advance from the river bank and while crossing the river increased in intensity until the right companies
reached the clump of nipa houses and sugar-cane fields. There was no hesitation or faltering on the part of anyone. The men behaved most admirably.
Many of the men have joined, to the number of 73, since September 4.

I sent Lieutenant Wolfe with a squad deployed up the railroad track, and with Lieutenant Kenly crossed the partially destroyed bridge.

The fire of the enemy on the right became very heavy, persistent, and was delivered with great rapidity at a distance of not over 600 yards.
The fire was principally Mausers. At this time the enemy began a withering fire down the railroad track from concealed points and from tree tops,
and had obtained from the right a cross fire on the railroad and on the troops.

The intensity of the fire from the right becoming so continuous, I sent 10 men from the left to reenforce Lieutenant Wassell,
and shortly afterwards reenforced the right with 20 more men, under Lieutenant Kenly.

On Lieutenant Kenly's return I sent him back to the bridge with orders for the artillery to shell over the men's heads at 800 yards range,
and to the right at 1,200 yards range.

The companies on the right being in the bamboo thicket and screened, Lieutenant Kenly and Lieutenant Bridges
could not fire without definite information.

At about this time the enemy began firing on the left company, obtaining, in addition to a front, an oblique fire, which partially appeared
to come from the left and rear. The enemy's fire was vigorous and direct, oblique, cross, and from both flanks. At this point I wish to make
official recognition of the courteous and valuable assistance rendered me by Mr. Arthur Johnson, of the New York Sun. Seeing him near me,
and dressed in a suit resembling a khaki uniform, I ordered him to go back on the railroad track to Lieutenants Bridges and Kenly
with orders to open up with all their guns to front and to the right and left. I then directed Lieutenant Wolfe to move up the track about 150 yards
farther with 10 men and volley to the right. Lieutenant Wolfe executed this order in a very spirited manner in the face of a very stiff fire down the line
formed by the bamboo thickets on either side of the railroad track and during a severe fire also from the right across the track.

The main line having reached a point four or five hundred yards beyond the bridge, about the designated place of advance covered by my instructions,
and the demonstration having been successful and having developed into an engagement, and the enemy's fire silenced and he having retreated,
I ordered the companies to alternately and slowly withdraw to the rear.

At 9 a.m. the river was crossed.

During the withdrawal no fire from the enemy was received from any range or direction.

The armed car, artillery, and infantry were withdrawn and outposts established.

As far as could be observed, there was no obstruction on the railroad track and the track appeared to have been unmolested.

By reason of defective ammunition, the Hotchkiss cannon became during the action temporarily disabled.

I desire to specially commend First Lieutenant Kenly, First Artillery, and First Lieutenant Bridges, Twenty-second Infantry, respectively in charge
of artillery and the armed car, for their coolness, zeal, and good judgment, and efficient handling of their guns.

No casualties occurred.

Ed., The "First Lieutenant Bridges" mentioned in the above report was Charles H. Bridges of the 22nd Infantry.
In an article published in Scribner's Magazine in 1911, Retired Brigadier General Frederick Funston, who was part of
MacArthur's 2nd Division, described Lieutenant Bridges' role in the action this way:

"General Mac-Arthur accompanied our brigade, and the armored train was pushed along the trade by a number of Chinamen.
This train was in command of Lieutenant C. H. Bridges, Twenty-second Infantry, and consisted of four cars, the first and last being flat cars,
while the other two were box cars. The first car was to do all the fighting, and was armed with a naval six-pounder rifle and three machine guns,
the others being merely to carry the impedimenta and serve as a living quarters for the personnel.

As an estimate, there were in my front and on my right from 600 to 1,000 insurgents within the zone of the infantry action.

I have no means of estimating the number of insurgent dead or wounded, but one fact remains—if they did not have a heavy casualty list,
it is the miracle of the century, in view of the facts as reported, that the entire country was swept by infantry, machine gun, and artillery fire
at ranges varying from 300 to 3,000 yards.

The portion of the command engaged was under fire from the enemy for over two hours,
and during the last hour the enemy's fire was intense and persistent.

I take pleasure in commending Lieutenants Wolfe, Kenly, Wassell, Huguet, and Sheldon.

I have the honor to invite special attention to the special recommendations accompanying this report.

I am, very respectfully,

Jno. A. Baldwin, Major, Twenty-second Infantry, Commanding Third Battalion.



Angeles, P. I., September 28,1899. Adjutant-general Second Brigade, Second Division.

Sir: I have the honor to recommend for the honor of a brevet First Lieut. William H. Wassell, Twenty-second Infantry,
for courageous conduct in action at Rio Anayo Balaga, September 28, 1899, handling his company with good judgment and skill
while under a very heavy and persistent front and flank fire from the enemy, and in maintaining his position and forcing the enemy to retreat.
I am, very respectfully,

Jno. A. Baldwin, Major, Twenty-second Infantry, Commanding Third Battalion.


Angeles, P. L, September 28, 1899. Adjutant-general Second Brigade, Second Division.

Sir: I have the honor to recommend for the honor of a brevet First Lieut. Orrin R. Wolfe, Twenty-second Infantry,
for conspicuous gallantry in action at Rio Anayo Balaga, September 28, 1899, energetically and zealously leading up the railroad track
a small detachment in the face of a withering front and flank fire from the insurgents, and in maintaining a cross fire on the enemy.
I am, very respectfully,

Jno. A. Baldwin, Major, Twenty-second Infantry, Commanding Third Battalion.


Angeles, P. I., Septemlter 28, 1899. Adjutant-general Second Brigade, Second Division.

Sir: I have the honor to recommend for the honor of a brevet Second Lieut. Frederick B. Kerr, Twenty-second Infantry,
for conspicuous gallantry in action at Rio Anayo Balaga, September 28, 1899, in conducting energetically and zealously reenforcements
from the left to the right of the line while under a severe front and flank fire from the enemy.
I am, very respectfully,

Jno. A. Baldwin, Major, Twenty-second Infantry, Commanding Third Battalion.



Company B, Twenty-second Infantry,

Angeles, P. I., September 29, 1899. Adjutant Twenty-second U. S. Infantry,

Angeles, P. I.

Sir: I have the honor to submit the following report of Company B's (Twentysecond U. S. Infantry) participation
in the action of yesterday, September 28, 1899:

At about 5 p. m. September 27, 1899, I received orders to relieve the Seventeenth Infantry on the northern line of outposts of this town.
At the same time I was directed to hold my company (Company B, Twenty-second U. S. Infantry, consisting of 1 acting first sergeant,
1 sergeant, 7 corporals, 1 lance-corporal, 1 musician, artificer, and 64 privates, each man carrying 200 rounds of ammunition)
in readiness to move at 4.45 a. m. to take part in the contemplated advance the following morning. Two Chinos, with one box of ammunition,
followed the company. With these were one Hospital Corps man and his two Chinos.

These orders were complied with, men breakfasting at 3.45 a. m.

At about 5.20 a. m. September 28, 1899, the commanding officer, Maj. John A. Baldwin, Twenty-second U. S. Infantry,
with two companies of his battalion, arrived at my reserve on the railroad, and directed me to call in all my outposts and form a skirmish line
behind a hedge to the left of the track, my right to touch on the railroad. The other two companies took up their position on the right of the track.
The barricade across the railway at my reserve had been removed the previous evening in order that the armored cars might advance to the bridge.

The first gun was fired at exactly at 5.30 a. m., and immediately the country to our front was subjected to a severe bombardment.
At about 6 o'clock a. m. the bamboo on our right flank was shelled. Evidently some insurgents were found, for a number of shots whistled
over our heads, and a company on the right of the track was swung around to silence this fire. During this time the thickets in our front
were being shelled continuously, and the artillery maintained its fire until about 6.35 a. m., when the armored cars were pushed farther up the track
and I received orders to advance through and beyond the hedge and fire five or six volleys at the insurgents, then located in the first line
of bamboo thickets across the river and some 600 yards to our front. In compliance with orders previously received,
1 corporal and 3 men were left behind at outpost No. 5 to protect our left flank and rear.

I fired five volleys. The armored cars were then pushed farther up the track, still pouring in a deadly fire upon the insurgents.
My company was then advanced to a position on a line with the cars, where it was found necessary to still further volley the enemy.

First Lieutenant Kenly, First U. S. Artillery, then took his guns up the track beyond the armored cars, which soon advanced to the bridge.
My company moved forward with the cars and halted on the south bank of the river, from which position we fired on the enemy
at a distance of 800 yards. At this point I gave command of the second platoon of the company to Acting First Sergt. George C. Charlton,
Company B, Twenty-second Infantry. I took command of the first platoon and instructed Sergeant Charlton to watch me closely
and follow the actions of the first platoon, as I could not make him hear my voice on account of the heavy artillery and infantry fire.

While here First Lieut, O. R. Wolfe, adjutant Third Battalion, Twenty-second Infantry, took 10 of my men, with Sergt. A. W. Gubisth,
and proceeded across the river and up the railroad track in advance of the line. My company had already commenced to ford the river
when I received orders from the commanding officer to halt—this for the twofold purpose of allowing Lieutenant Wolfe and his men to advance
beyond our line and of permitting the companies on the right of the track, who were some little distance behind us, to catch up.
This accomplished, the battalion moved forward in our line and crossed the river under fire, the water in no place being more than knee deep.
The artillery remained at the bridge.

The river having been forded, we immediately found ourselves in a swamp, the grass being about 6 feet high. After marching 30 yards or so
we struck an open space, at the northern extremity of which was a line of bamboo thickets. About 200 yards from our left flank
there was also a line of bamboo. Across the track on our right and extending some distance to the front I noticed bamboo thickets
interspersed with large trees.

We had advanced about 150 yards when a hot fire was poured in upon us from a right-oblique direction and across the track.
Major Baldwin and Lieutenant Wolfe with his squad were standing on the railroad track on a line with my company. The left of the company
was swung slightly forward and a currying fire brought to bear upon some of the insurgents, whom both Sergeant Charlton and myself had discovered
to be in the large trees about 200 yards across the track to our right oblique. These men had been making it very uncomfortable for the company.
The insurgents in our front and in the trees mentioned used black powder in part, I can not state the results of our lire.

At this time Lieutenant Wolfe took his squad some 150 or 200 yards up the track, beyond our line, to reconnoiter.

There was now heavy firing by our forces on the right of the track, and I was directed to send 20 men to reenforce Company H,
Twenty-second Infantry (Lieut. W. H. Wassell). These were in charge of Corpl. W. F. Cooley.
Second Lieutenant Kerr, battalion Quartermaster, guided this squad to their position across the track.

I was then ordered to remove the remainder of my company to the track. They had no sooner started than a heavy fire was opened on them
from the front and from the left, that from the right oblique still continuing, the bullets striking all around us, but fortunately hitting no one.

The immediate fire of the enemy having ceased, the company withdrew slowly by platoons and recrossed the river, halting upon the opposite bank.
During this time the artillery was shelling the insurgents directly in our front and to our left front.

Upon halting I saw what I believed to be three insurgents close to the track and in the bamboo to the left, about 900 yards to our front.
I fired three volleys at this spot, which then disappeared.

The other companies having recrossed the river, the battalion was slowly withdrawn, and ordered to fire only if fired upon.
Just prior to this I had seen through my glasses a small squad of men beyond an opening in the bamboo and about 1,000 yards in our front.

In compliance with orders previously received, I returned to my original position and reestablished my line of outposts north of Angeles.

After the action two corporals were sent to the hospital sick with fever.

I have no casualties to report.

I can not too strongly commend the actions of all the noncommissioned officers of my company, and the manner in which they carried out my instructions.
Corpl. L. M. Pitler, with 4 men, and acting First Sergeant Charlton very ably protected our left flank.

Every man in the company behaved throughout the engagement in a most soldierly and commendable manner, and carried out the orders promptly
and energetically. We arrived back at the outpost line about 9.o'clock a.m..

Very respectfully,

Raymond Sheldon, First Lieutenant, Twenty-second Infantry, Commanding Company B.




Angeles, Luzon, P. I., September 29, 1899. Adjutant Third Battalion, Twenty-second Infantry,

Angeles, Luzon, P. I.

Sir: In compliance with verbal instructions I have the honor to make the following report of the operations of Company H,
Twenty-second Infantry, September 28, 1899:

The company (1 officer and 83 men) in battalion, Major Baldwin, Twenty-second Infantry, commanding, left Angeles 4.46 a. m.,
marched north on railroad on extreme outpost, formed line in northeasterly direction, Company H right company of the battalion.
After considerable firing by the armored car, returned only by scattering shots, the company, under orders, fired volleys into the bamboo
across the river; advanced obliquely toward the river, the right platoon of Company H refused directly to the rear. The river was found broad,
shallow, and with cut banks on southern side 10 feet high. As the company forded the river the insurgents opened fire from our right front
and right flank. A strong fire was sent in on us, but the company was so disposed that almost immediately it was able to get some little protection
and return the fire, the right platoon fronting perpendicularly to the river, the left platoon obliquely to the river. As the firing developed
Major Baldwin sent me 25 men from other companies. I placed them in my first platoon. The insurgents' fire was delivered steadily over our heads,
in continued, gradually decreasing force for threequarters of an hour, at the end of which time we had completely silenced it.
The company, under orders, was then withdrawn by platoon. As we retired not a shot was fired at us.

While no men were killed or wounded, I believe the firing on our right flank alone came from at least 200 insurgents,
the ground sloping upward from the river rendering their aim in all cases high. Very respectfully,

William H. Wassell, First Lieutenant, Twenty-second Infantry, Commanding Company H.




Angeles, P. I., September 29, 1899. Adjutant Third Battalion, Twenty-second Infantry.

Sir: I have the honor to submit the following as the report of the part taken by Company C on the morning of September 28, 1899:

The company marched north on the Manila and Dagupan Railroad at 5 a. m. Arrived at Tarlac-Porac road, and took position on this road
to the right of the railroad and, after the artillery had been in action some time, deployed to the right, fired five volleys, obliqued to the right,
and then moved forward to and across the river.

On gaining the opposite shore we received a fire, but advanced until about 600 yards from the river, firing volleys as we advanced.

The company halted near the outskirts of a small town, one section of the right platoon moving into a cane field and connecting with Company H.

It was while in this position that we received the heaviest fire, which came from a force of about 200, who fired from a line of bamboo.
Our ranges were 300, 500, and 800 yards, the last volleys being fired at 600 yards.

At 8.30 a. m. we retired slowly, halted on south side of river bank, and at 8.45 a. m. moved toward Angeles, reaching Angeles at about 9.15 a. m.

The men behaved very well, paying close attention to signals and commands. Very respectfully,

A. H. Huguet, First Lieutenant, Twenty-second Infantry, Commanding Company C.




Angeles, P. I., September 30, 1899. Adjutant Third Battalion, Twenty-second Infantry.

Sir: I have the honor to make the following report of the operations of Company L, Twenty-second Infantry, on the 28th instant.

The company was placed on outpost duty guarding the town during the absence of the other troops composing the garrison of the town.
One outpost of 20 men was placed at graveyard on Angeles-Porac road with an advance post at small stone bridge on same road.
Another post of 20 men was placed on the Angeles-Bacolor road. Another post was on the Angeles-Sindalan road, composed of 13 men.
Another post of 20 men was placed at junction of Mexico-Tarlac road and road leading out from Angeles in an easterly direction.

At the beginning of the demonstration along the railroad at the north end of the town the post on the Bacolor road was advanced about one-half mile.
At the same time the post at the eastern end of the town was moved out and reconnoitered village on road about 1 mile from railroad
where the post was established. This village consists of from 12 to 15 nipa houses and is surrounded by open cane fields varying in width
from 400 yards in rear to one-half to 1 mile on right, left, and front. A small knoll about 15 to 20 feet high at end of village, and on which
sentinels were placed, made an excellent position for observing the surrounding fields. This post was maintained in this position till the return
of the remaining 3 companies of the battalion, when it was withdrawn and reestablished at its former position. The post on the Bacolor road
was brought back to its original position at the same time.

The company remained on outpost until relieved in the evening.

Very respectfully, your obedient servant,

James Justice, Second Lieutenant, Twenty-second Infantry, Commanding Company L. No. 32.




The gun car of the armored train commanded by First Lieutenant Charles H. Bridges of the 22nd Infantry.
The naval 6 pounder gun and one Gatling gun can be seen.

Photo from the Congressional Serial Set of 1900-
Report of Operations of the 2nd Division, Eighth Army Corps,
from May 31, 1899, to April 6, 1900


Following is Lt. Bridges' After Action Report of the armored train's actions:

Angeles, P. I., September 14, 1899. Assistant Adjutant-general Eighth Army Corps.

Sir: I have the honor to make the following report of work done by armored train and Gatling guns from June 21 to August 31, inclusive:

From June 20, date of last report, to August 9, 1899, the armored train remained at San Fernando with orders to be ready at all times
for an advance or to repel an attack along the line of railroad from either direction. Nothing of importance occurred until the morning
of the 9th of August, when the train was pushed to a point on the track about 1,200 yards in front of the enemy's intrenchments,
northwest of San Fernando, in order to take part in the general advance which took place on that day.

The engagement opened at 5.30 a. m. with a shot from the 6-pound gun on the armored train. From this point the train was pushed slowly
toward the enemy, the firing being kept up continuously until the point where the track had been destroyed was reached. In this engagement
62 6-pound shell, 150 Hotchkiss revolving cannon shell, and 8,000 rounds of cartridges (caliber .45] were fired. No casualties on train.
The shell for Hotchkiss revolving cannon again proved disappointing, as mentioned in previous reports. The metallic cases are apparently old
and of inferior quality, as they repeatedly broke up into small pieces, one of which is sufficient to jam the piece and cause considerable delay in firing.

The manner in which Corporal Batehelor, Third Artillery, handled 6-pound gun is worthy of mention.
His coolness and accuracy of aiming under fire were particularly noticeable.

The train remained at open end of track until 4 o'clock on the morning of August 11, when it was removed to San Fernando,
where the Gatling guns were mounted on field carriages.

On same morning the Gatlings accompanied expedition to Santa Rita, which place was occupied without resistance.

On August 12, one Gatling gun accompanied a battalion of the Ninth Infantry, under Captain Noyes, on a reconnoissance toward Porac.
The outposts of the enemy were encountered about a mile from the city and several volleys were exchanged, when the order to retire was given.
The Gatling gun did not go into action. Returned to Santa Rita, arriving about 8.30 p. m.

On August 14 2 Gatlings were taken back to San Fernando and remained there until August 19, when orders from General MacArthur
were received to proceed with Gatlings to Angeles. Arrived at latter place August 20 about 11 o'clock. The guns were placed at points
commanding the two principal approaches to the city, where they still remain.

Very respectfully, C. H. Bridges,

First Lieutenant, Twenty-second Infantry.

Commanding Armored Train.


October 1, companies I and G crossed the Rio Grande Pampanga at Arayat, and while scouting, were fired upon by insurgents
intrenched on the left bank of the river, one mile below Arayat. The companies drove the enemy from their position
and inflicted heavy loss upon them.

October 4, companies E, F, and K attacked a large force of the Manila battalion of insurgents on both sides of the river below Arayat.
These picked troops, sent specially to hold this point against the American advance, offered a determined opposition,
but their fire was completely silenced. The three companies were annoyed by fire from insurgent outposts at Arayat;
but having orders not to enter this town, drove in the outposts and returned to Candaba.

October 12, the 1st battalion—Ballance's—was detached and ordered for duty with the 1st division, 8th army corps.

October 13, this battalion and the 3rd battalion— Baldwin's—marched to Arayat,
where were mobilizing the forces for the last great campaign in northern Luzon.

Killed in action, August 12, 1899:

Private Ira W. Cox, company D.

Wounded in action, August 12, 1899:

Private James O'Connell, company D.



Ira W. Cox, who was killed in action
as a Private in Company D
of the 22nd Infantry, August 12, 1899.

For letters written by and about Ira,
see the section on this website entitled:

Ira Cox, Died A Hero Under the Stars and Stripes

Click on the above link to go there.





The above narrative is taken from the 22nd Infantry Regimental History,
published by the Regiment and printed in the Philippines in 1904.
Additional photos and comments were added by the website editor.


* From the book: Combat Diary EPISODES FROM THE HISTORY OF THE
by A. B. Feuer

Praeger Publishers, New York, N.Y.





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