1st Battalion 22nd Infantry
Operations of 1900 and 1901
awarded to the 22nd Infantry Regiment
for its service during the Luzon campaign
The 22nd Infantry in formation at Malolos. Note bugler, 3rd row, 2nd from right.
From a stereoscopic photograph
negative on glass by Underwood & Underwood, 1899, titled:
The Fighting 22nd before Malalos--lost a Colonel at San Juan, Cuba, and at Malolos, Philippine Islands
Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of American History
OPERATIONS OF 1900
During December, 1899, and January, 1900,
General MacArthur, commanding northern Luzon, reorganized and
redistributed the troops
assigned to his extended field of operations. His forces were very actively engaged in pursuing the remnants of Aguinaldo's northern army
and the self-constituted guerrilla bands; also in giving all possible protection to the inhabitants of towns and cities against the incursions of ladrones,
who plundered them without mercy, adding torture and murder when their extortionate demands were not promptly complied with.
The wealthy inhabitants, those possessing estates, were in a precarious condition. The scattered insurgent forces that still retained some form
of organization called upon them for contributions to the insurgent cause, promising upon compliance to protect them from the cruelties
of the robber bands. They demanded of the native civil authorities, appointed or elected under the direction of our officers, the imposition
and collection of taxes and the sale of insurgent cedulas for insurgent uses, on penalty of confiscation or destruction of private property.
Presidentes of cities and towns were found
contributing to insurgent officers still engaged in active
hostilities. Preservation of life and property
compelled them so to act; while they were very anxious for the success of the American arms and the peace of the country,
while they were doing all they could to effect this success and peace, still they were under painful duress, and obliged to contribute
upon insurgent demand, in order to retain their lives and property. In this same situation were many citizens of friendly intent.
It therefore remained for the American forces
to pursue effectually, and to destruction, all remaining
and bands of ladrones, in order to insure the pacification of the country. In pursuance of this policy, every town and barrio
of importance was garrisoned. Every rumor of insurgent forces, ladrones, or hidden weapons was investigated. Within the protected zones,
small detachments of American soldiers scoured the country day and night; larger forces operated in the mountains and away from the towns.
Many rumors proved ill-founded; carefully laid plans discovered no insurgents, no ladrones, no weapons. This work,
attended by many weary marches and constantly maintained vigilance on the part of our troops, was prosecuted with vigor during the entire year.
Gradually it proved successful; insurgents became demoralized and deserted their leaders; bands of ladrones were broken up,
their arms captured, the offenders sent to military prisons.
A recital of the work done by the regiment
during 1900 would resolve itself in three hundred and sixty-five
stating that on this date one insurgent was killed; that on another date two ladrones and two rifles were captured; that on a third date
the country near such a place was thoroughly scoured without discovering any sign of the enemy. Therefore, only a brief resume
of the operations is givenit shows the character of the work that the regiment was called upon to perform. In addition to the field service,
mention is made of the establishment of civil governmentthis work also devolved upon our army.
January 1, 1900, eight companies of the
regiment occupied the towns of Arayat, Candaba, and San Luis; the
remaining four companies
were divided between Carranglan and Bayombong. During the month, Santa Ana, Mexico, San Fernando, Cabiao, and San Antonio
were also garrisoned by the regiment.
Frequent parties were sent out from all these
posts. In the later part of the month, in accordance with orders
from brigade headquarters, particular activity was displayed by the troops at Arayat and Santa Ana,
as bands of insurgents were reported operating in the vicinity of Mount Arayat.
Company E, under the command of Lieut. Dalton,
22nd infantry, scouted around the northern and eastern slopes of
No insurgents were seen, though traces of relatively recent camps were found. This expedition lasted three daysJanuary 17 to January 19.
January 7.The first meeting of the officers of the civil government in Arayat was held.
January 29.Lieut. Admire, 22nd infantry,
with twenty men of company A, from Santa Ana, encountered an
of one hundred insurgents, near Laomit, a small village about one mile from Arayat, on the road leading to San Pedro Magalang.
The insurgents retired before reinforcements from Arayat arrived. It was reported that six insurgents were killed.
Filipino insurgents and their officers
January 29.The election of the
representatives of the barrios of Candaba took place, thus
completing the organization
of the civil government of that town. The work of issuing cedulas was begun during the month at Arayat, Candaba,
Santa Ana, San Luis, and San Fernando.
February 5.Lieut. Admire captured a party
of ladrones, together with eight Remington rifles and 200 rounds
Five of these men were tried and sentenced by the provost court of this section.
February 20.Company K, under Lieut.
Hannay, left at one o'clock a. m., and marched to the barrio of
where a force of insurgents was reported to be. The barrio was reached at 4 a. m., and surrounded.
Two Filipinos were wounded in attempting to escape. About a hundred men, two American horses, nine Remington rifles,
and considerable correspondence were captured. Forty-eight men were released, while the rest were taken to Candaba.
This band were members of a force formerly under command of Col. Simon Kabigting (Cobingtig?), who was reported as having been killed
by his own men. Horses supposed to belong to Major Wood.
February 23.One hundred men, under Major
Reynolds, were sent to Palanglang, a barrio about four miles from
to capture General Alejandrino. The force started at one o'clock at night and surrounded the barrio very quietly before daylight,
and searched the village thoroughly as soon as there was light enough. No trace of General Alejandrino was found.
A detachment from Santa Ana cooperated.
February 26.Lieut. Admire found a Mauser carbine and one Colt's revolver near Palanglang, while searching for arms said to be concealed there.
February 28.Company E, under Lieut.
Dalton, left early in the morning to go to Candating to
investigate certain charges
against Pedro Medrina Paranlao and Jose Medrina Dizon, and to scout toward San Miguel. No sign of insurgents was discovered.
A party from Cabiao, under Lieut. Ripley, and a party from Candaba, under Lieut. Hannay, were also sent out at this time,
but did not see or learn anything of an organization of insurgents in the Pinac. Lieut. Ripley found a party of twenty-three men in a house,
where there were reloading tools, and brought the party to Cabiao. Two of the men were wearing insurgent uniforms. Lieut. Dalton returned on March 1.
March 1.Lieut. Admire, with eighteen men
of company A and fifteen men from Arayat, scouted for three days
through Mount Arayat, particularly in the vicinity of Palanglang, the home of Alejandrino. The party was fired upon on nearing Palanglang,
although the persons firing could not be located. One Krag-Jorgenson rifle and some insurgent uniforms were captured in the rear of Alejandrino's house.
March 1,1900.Smith, acting assistant adjutant-general, at San Isidro, sent the following telegram to General MacArthur.
J French, commanding
Twenty-second, reports result of scouts made this day. Says that
parties have searched the northern half of Pinac
without seeing or hearing anything of any armed parties. Natives bringing crops say that ladrones have disappeared since one Eyangelista
killed their captain, lieutenant, and 2 other ladrones short time ago. Lieutenant Ripley, Twenty-second Infantry, went to a place near San Miguel
de Mayumo and brought in 23 natives found in a house where there were some reloading tools. Lieutenant Dalton went to Candating and then
toward Mayumo, and reports that Pedro Medina Paranlano and Joz Medina Dizon are father and son and are vouched for as good men, and that
he could get no evidence that they were collecting taxes or otherwise aiding insurgents.
March 6, 8, 11.Detachments from San
Antonio, under Lieut. Leonard, went in search of Garciano Garcia.
The expedition of the 8th brought in fifty-nine natives, two Remington rifles, one Remington carbine, six bolos, and some ammunition.
All were found in barracks in the barrio of Delagut.
March 10Lieutenant Leonard at San Antonio
sent out detachment of 30 men to Daligut, 10 miles northwest of
San Antonio, and at daybreak
surprised camp of either insurgents or ladrones, capturing 3 Remingtons and 50 cartridges and killing 1 man. No casualties.
Letter from a Soldier in the 22nd
Infantry, postmarked at the
Military Postal Station at San Fernando, Philippine Islands, March 13, 1900
Philatelic cover courtesy of
stamp collection "PHILIPPINEN"
March 15.Sergeant Ray, company I, was
attacked by bolomen on his way from Cabiao to San Antonio, and
Lieut. Draper was sent immediately with a party to barrio of Buliran, where the sergeant was attacked. Seven suspects were brought in.
March 16.At night a party under Lieut.
Ripley was sent out to locate and capture the men who had
attacked and nearly killed Sergeant Ray,
company I, near Cabiao, on the day before. Some men were captured. One was identified by Sergeant Ray as one of his assailants.
Two Remington rifles were captured.
(Ed., the "Sergeant Ray"
mentioned above is SGT Charles W. Ray, who earned a Medal of
for his actions at the bridge across the Rio de la Pampanga on October 19, 1899. After recovering
from malaria in a hospital in Hong Kong, Ray was on his way back to his Company when he was
attacked and severly wounded, as mentioned above. The document below indicates that one of the
prisoners taken, identified by SGT Ray as one of his attackers, is being transferred to Regimental
Headquarters to await trial. It is signed by Captain George A. Detchemendy, Commanding Officer
of Company H 22nd Infantry.
(Thanks to Matthew Westfall for the above document.)
March 18.On information that a body of
insurgents was located at Canayan Buntung, in the northern part
of the Pinac de Candaba,
a combination movement was ordered by the regimental commander by sending strong parties from Candaba, Arayat, and San Isidro,
and a smaller one from Cabiao. The movement was made early in the morning, and although no enemy was found, resulted in covering
the section of the country as effectually as the characteristics of the country would permit. The growth of marsh cane or reed was dense,
and more often than not impenetrable. The trail over which it was necessary to move frequently ceased after a mile or so,
and necessitated an attempt at another trail. The heat was great.
March 23.On information that a band of
ladrones was robbing bancas near the mouth of the Rio Chico,
a general movement was ordered by the regimental commander to this section of the country. A party from Cabiao
held the banks of the Rio Grande opposite the mouth of the Rio Chico; a party from Arayat held the fords of the Chico,
from near its mouth to two miles up the stream, while parties from San Antonio and San Isidro covered the country lying in the angle
formed by the two rivers. The last party moved at 3 a. m., the others were in position by daylight. This movement was under
the personal direction of the regimental commander, who went to San Antonio. The enemy was encountered.
The country was covered with a dense growth, which afforded secure protection for any band of ladrones lurking in its shelter
and familiar with its trails. Lieut. Dalton was in command of the party from Arayat; Lieut. Stone, of the party from Cabiao;
Lieut. Leonard, of the party from San Antonio; Lieut. Huguet, of the party from San Isidro.
Wounded in action, March 24, 1900, while commanding district headquarter scouts: 1st Lieutenant Orrin R. Wolfe.
The following telegram from General Frederick
Funston, relates the incident in which First Lieutenant Orrin R.
Wolfe, Twenty-second Infantry,
was wounded, while serving as Funston's Aide-de-Camp:
Two days have been trying
to find Pilar's camp. Information on which we have been acting is
erroneous as to location of camp, but it is certainly
near here and we hope yet to find it, though Filar may be gone. Had a severe fight at 4 o'clock this morning with a party of 15, whom we attacked
in their camp 3 miles from here. My aid-de-camp, First Lieut. O. R. Wolfe, Twenty-second Infantry, was severely wounded in left lung,
and Private James E. Murphy, Company C, Thirty-fourth Infantry, a member of brigade headquarters, mounted detachment, severely wounded in left elbow.
We killed 2 of the enemy and wounded others, who escaped. Captured 8 Mausers and 4 Remingtons and about 800 cartridges and destroyed
quantity of rice. Lieutenant Mitchell, my other aid, is taking the wounded to San Isidro on pony litters. I remain out with Captain Koehler
and 40 men Troop G, Fourth Cavalry.
March 25.Lieut. Leonard, with a
detachment, was sent into the section of the country between the
Rio Grande and Rio Chico,
and got eight members of a band that had been robbing bancas on the Rio Grande.
April 18.Lieut. Admire, in command of the
fourth district headquarter scouts, struck a body of insurgents,
commanded by Aquiuo,
in the mountains of Bulacan; scattered them; captured eight, one rifle, one revolver, and eight ponies.
April 28.Capt. Hodges, with a detachment,
in barrio San Vicente, Bataasan, and Santa Cruz, near Arayat,
and captured ten insurgents, twenty-five rifles, four revolvers, three bolos, 591 rounds of ammunition. No casualties.
May 9.Lieut. Draper, with a detachment of
twenty men, company I, struck a band of insurgents near barrio
killed three, wounded four, captured twenty-nine rifles, 886 rounds of ammunition, and one horse. No casualties.
May 25.The barrio of San Luis, garrisoned
by the 22nd infantry, was attacked at midnight by about fifty
were routed and escaped in the thick underbrush.
May 31.General Funston, in command of a
column consisting of troop G, 4th cavalry, and a detachment of
the 22nd infantry,
struck a large body of insurgents intrenched in the mountains northeast of San Miguel; scattered them, captured four ponies with saddles,
and 500 rounds of ammunition. At 2.30 p. m. encountered 100 insurgents occupying top of steep ridge.
Took one position, but lack of ammunition forced him to retire.
June 3.General Funston, in command of a
column consisting of troop G, 4th cavalry, detachment 22nd
infantry, and district headquarter scouts,
attacked a body of insurgents intrenched in Bulacan mountains, twenty-five miles east of San Miguel; drove them from their position, and scattered them.
Killed in action, June 3, 1900:
Captain George J. Godfrey;
Private Perry G. Ethridge, company A.
GENERAL ORDERS No. 10.
HEADQUARTERS 22ND U. S. INFANTRY, ARAYAT, LUZON, PHILIPPINE ISLANDS.
June 4th, 1900.
Captain George J. Godfrey, 22nd U. S.
infantry. Killed in action. Shot through the heart.
His military record is closed. A brilliant career ended.
Deeds, silent symbols more potent than words, proclaimed his soldier worth. The histories of the 5th and 8th Army Corps are his.
Official recommendation but emphasized what all men knew.
Cuban soil saw his valor.
Under a tropical sun, on morn of June 3rd, 1900, among the lonely fastnesses of the Bulacan mountains,
as victory crowned the combat, he gave "for the flag" the life he had dedicated to his country.
His mind was trained for the profession of arms. His heart and impulses were generous.
Conscientious and zealous discharge of duty were his guiding tenets.
He sought no preferment through avenues foreign to the service.
His first thought was his country's causepersonal ambition his last.
Thus he stood, a peer among the best type of American soldiers. In the civil administration of a pueblo,
to the misguided native people he extended the hand of fellowship and led them along the true path of civilization.
His work is enduring.
Into the unspeakable grief which now moves the hearts of those who dwell in our far distant native land, we dare not enter.
In silence and with memory filled with sorrow, the regiment stands and mourns with themfor our brother.
BY ORDER OF MAJOR BALDWIN:
H. C. HODGES,
Captain, 22nd Infantry,
Ed., The above eulogy for CPT Godfrey was written by CPT Henry Clay Hodges, who would eventually retire as a Major General.
After his death, Captain George Godfrey would
have a battery of 12 inch guns named for him, at the Presidio
at San Francisco. For a photo of this battery see Service at Home 1906-1908 on this website.
June 11.A column commanded by General
Grant, General Funston accompanying, and consisting of troops H
and G, 4th cavalry;
detachment, battery E, 1st artillery, two guns; nine companies of 22nd infantry; detachment, 34th infantry; six companies, 35th infantry;
company M, 41st infantry; scouts of the 4th and 5th districts and of the 41st infantry, and one company, Macabebe scouts,
attacked an insurgent stronghold in Bulacan mountains, five miles from Sibul. Carried position and scattered enemy.
One Macabebe scout wounded; one American prisoner recovered.
June 28.Second Lieutenant Paul A. Draper, while building a ferry near San Antonio, was drowned.
GENERAL ORDERS No. 11
HEADQUARTERS 22ND U. S. INFANTRY, ARAYAT, LUZON, PHILIPPINE ISLANDS.
July 1st, 1900.
Again in a brief space of time the mournful
duty devolves upon the Regimental Commander to announce the death
of an officer:
2nd Lieut. Paul A. Draper, 22nd Infantry.
This valiant young officer gave promise of an exalted career in his chosen profession.
Enlisting July 27th, 1897, in response to his country's call, he won by his soldierly qualities the coveted prize of a praiseworthy ambitiona commission.
He was quiet and unostentatious of demeanor, courteous and honorable in his intercourse with his associates.
The meed of praise is sustained by a recital of an act of heroism: On the night of May 8th, 1900, he conducted with skill and secrecy
a difficult march to Santa Barbara, a barrio of San Antonio, Nueva Ecija, and at dawn surprised a band of insurgents,
outnumbering his detachment over three times. Before the enemy had time to recover from their surprise, Lieut. Draper made a fierce
and furious onslaught. In this almost hand to-hand encounter he, with only eight men, practically destroyed the band,
killing and wounding a number and capturing thirty of the enemy's rifles and a quantity of ammunition.
'Twas not his fate to fall in battle.
His soldier's death, in the discharge of a duty, was none the less honorable.
On June 28th, 1900, near San Antonio, Province of Nueva Ecija, he lost his life where the rushing waters of the Rio Grande de la Pampanga flow.
On receipt hereof, this order will be read at retreat to every company of the Regiment.
BY ORDER OF MAJOR BALDWIN:
H. C. HODGES,
Captain 22nd Infantry,
in this article about
At the time of Draper's death,
Article from the Los Angeles Herald,
Grave marker for 2nd Lieutenant Paul Draper
He is buried in the Moscow
The inscription on his marker reads:
"Just within the golden
Photo by Julie Bennett Coleman
July 16.General Funston, commanding a
column, consisting of two companies, 34th infantry; two
companies, 22nd infantry,
and three companies, 34th infantry; troop G, 4th cavalry; detachment of district headquarter scouts, and squadron Philippine cavalry,
attacked an insurgent stronghold near Mount Corona. Enemy fled in jungle. Barracks and all property destroyed. Two Macabebe scouts slightly wounded.
July 22.Major Wheeler, of the 35th
infantry commanding a column consisting of companies A, C, and I,
and company F, 22nd infantry, engaged about fifty insurgents near Mount Corona, and drove them from their position.
(Ed., In 1902, for the above action at Mount
Corona, Corporal Martin Burckhart and Corporal Fred J. Winter,
both of Company F, 22nd Infantry,
were awarded Certificates of Merit by President Theodore Roosevelt, for distinguished gallantry in action and conspicuous gallantry in action,
respectively. At that time only the Medal of Honor, the Certificate of Merit and the Silver Star Citation were authorized by the Army as awards
for valor. Corporal Winter's award was later changed to the Distinguished Service Medal. 1st Lieutenant David Stone also of Company F
would be awarded a Silver Star Citation for the same action.)
July 25.Lieuts. Dalton and Leonard, while
scouting west of Jaen, captured one insurgent officer, three
rifles, seven stolen carabaos,
and some ammunition. No casualties.
July 28.Lieuts. Dalton and Leonard captured, near Cabiao, six ladrones, two rifles, one revolver, and a quantity of ammunition. No casualties.
August 30.The regiment participated in an
expedition, commanded by General Funston, moving from Candaba,
San Antonio, San Isidro, Gapan, Pefiaranda, and San Miguel, to points in mountains where the roads leading south from San Isidro
join with roads from Gapan to San Isidro.
September 21.Insurgents attacked Santa Rosa, Nueva Ecija, at 10 p. m., but were promptly driven back. No casualties.
October 2.Lieut. Wheeler, with a
detachment of company A, struck a band of insurgents in barrio of
Santo Tomas, near Jaen;
killed one, captured two, two rifles and valuable papers. No casualties.
Lieut. Wheeler, with forty men of company A,
encountered an insurgent outpost near San Pablo;
killed one insurgent and captured two rifles. No casualties.
October 11.Lieut. Wheeler, with a
detachment of company A, captured in woods, near barrio of Jaen,
Comandante Delfin Esquivel and three soldiers, six rifles, and 500 rounds of ammunition.
October 14.Lieut. Hannay, commanding
detachment of company K, had a skirmish with insurgents near
captured two rifles, eight prisoners, and recaptured one private, 24th infantry, held as a prisoner.
October 15.Lieutenant Hannay, with
Company K Twenty-second Infantry, guided by the exinsurgent
proceeded to a small barrio in swamp near Zaragoza barrio of Jaen; captured two rifles 200 rounds of ammunition, and some
correspondence; recaptured Private Brown and body of Private Benjamin, who was killed by our fire, both of Company G,
Twenty-fourth Infantry, captured September 13th.
October 16.Mounted detachments of six men
of the regiment returning from San Isidro were fired upon by a
body of insurgents
concealed alongside of the road, about two miles from Cabiao. One man thrown from his horse and captured.*
Forty men of company H immediately pursued them, but the enemy escaped in the darkness.
* Private Walker, company H. It is believed that this man died in captivity.
October 25.The launch "Stonie",
private property, attacked by 125 insurgents, under Natividad and
between Cabiao and Arayat, and boarded; two white men in charge captured. Lieut. Whitfield, with fifty men of the regiment,
assisted by Lieut. Quinlan with fifty Macabebes, cavalrymen, went in pursuit, recapturing the two men.
The "Stonie" was taken in tow by the government launch "Sterling".
November 16.Lieut Wheeler, with detachment of 22nd infantry, captured, near Tombo, six insurgents, five rifles, and one revolver.
November 20.San Isidro, Nueva Ecija, fired into by small band of insurgents. Garrison promptly pursued, but parties found nothing. No casualties.
November 26.Lieut. Leonard, commanding
forty-three men, company I, struck a band of insurgents under the
near San Francisco; captured one horse with saddle and bridle. No casualties.
Lieut. Ripley, commanding detachment of Ilocano scouts, captured three insurgents, three rifles, and 22 rounds of ammunition,
near Cabanatuan. No casualties.
December 1.Lieut. Sheldon, with
detachment of the regiment, acting under orders from General
struck an outpost of insurgents near Santa Cruz; killed three, wounded one. No casualties.
December 2.Lieut. Ripley, commanding
detachment, Ilocano scouts, while scouting southeast of
met a band of insurgents; killed three, captured one rifle and two revolvers. No casualties.
Died of wounds received in action near Cabiao, December 6, 1900:
Private William Bold, company L.
December 19.Lieut. Leonard, commanding
mounted detachment, company I, struck a party of insurgents under
on Rio Chico; killed two, wounded nine, captured six rifles and 138 rounds of ammunition; recovered one woman taken from Labaquini
and ten stolen carabao; eight houses used as barracks were destroyed. No casualties.
December 21.Lieut. Wheeler, acting on
information from spies, captured the insurgent captain Esteban
prisoner led them to the camp of twenty-eight of his men near Jaen. Lieut. Wheeler attacked camp in darkness; killed two,
wounded one, captured eight rifles and 300 rounds of ammunition. No casualties.
December 28.General Funston,with Lieut.
Sheldon and a detachment of the regiment, surprised a detachment
of insurgents near Cabiao;
killed six, wounded one, captured one rifle and six insurgents. No casualties.
Lieut. Hannay, with a detachment, company K, struck a band of insurgents near San Julian; killed one, captured one rifle. No casualties.
December 29.General Funston, commanding
detachment of the regiment and scouts from Gapan, Cabiao, Jaen,
and San Isidro,
attempted to capture Natividad. Information being faulty, he escaped; but Lieut. Hannay captured his orderly, with rifle,
as well as Natividad's personal effects and some correspondence from Alejandrino and Lacuna.
Lieut. Sheldon killed five insurgents, captured six, and one rifle. No casualties.
The following article relates how
Colonel John W. French, Commander of the 22nd Infantry,
was instrumental in raising flags over Philippine schools. He was assisted by the Chaplain of the Regiment,
Edward H. Fitzgerald.
From the New York Times, July 22, 1900
Ed., The following promotions and appointments in the 22nd Infantry were recorded for the year 1900:
The following officers of the Regiment were promoted to the rank of Lieutenant Colonel in 1900:
The following officers of the Regiment were promoted to the rank of Major in 1900:
Richard T. Yeatman
The following officers of the Regiment were promoted to the rank of Captain in 1900:
John R. Seyburn
Joseph L. Donovan
Robert L. Hamilton
The following officers of the Regiment were promoted to the rank of Second Lieutenant in 1900:
William W. Taylor, Jr.
Henry A. Bell
William S. Neely
OPERATIONS OF 1901
The activity of our troops caused a change in
sentiment on the part of the inhabitants. As soon as they found
that we could give them protection,
they gave us information; they gave us assistance in finding, arresting, or scattering ladrones, or the small insurgent bands
that still remained in active hostility. A few that gave information were tortured and murdered by insurgents; but with the establishment
of town government, and the appointment of native police under military supervision, the confidence of the people in their personal safety
was strengthened; the aid they rendered the troops in their efforts to discover the places where arms and other war materials were hidden
was correspondingly greater.
The establishment of the numerous small
garrisons necessitated the distribution of military stores over
an extensive country,
and the forwarding of supplies to many points difficult to reach during even the most favorable seasons of the year.
Transportation was kept busy; roads, trails, bridges, and ferries were built and repaired by natives, under supervision of the army.
As peace conditions increased, the duties of the army became more complicated. Natives came of their own accord to take the oath of allegiance
to American sovereignty; the provost court and the military commission were gradually superseded by native courts, native judges, native attorneys.
American schools were established; over everything the army exercised a supervision that gave place, as conditions improved,
to merely a parental watchfulness. But always, there were rumors of insurgents still in -arms; always there was word of arms,
not in use, but hidden for future opportunities; always there were tales of ladrones.
And the army worked. The army campaigned,
administered justice, struggled with strange laws, protected
Filipino adherent from Filipino patriot,
built roads, hauled supplies, administered oaths of allegiance, supervised schools. From Arayat to San Isidro, the 22nd infantry
performed its multitudinous labors until, in June 1900, this territorial departmentthe first pacified in northern Luzon
was declared free from armed resistance.
Ed., During the year the following officers
from the 22nd Infantry were detailed to serve in the capacities
indicated in the staff department
of Headquarters Second Separate Brigade, commanded by Brigadier General William H. Bisbee:
Chief Quartermaster: Captain W.A. Campbell
Acting judge-advocate: First Lieutenant I.W. Leonard
January 12.General Funston, with
detachment of twelve men under Capt. Kreps, met a band of thirty
insurgents in trail, five miles southeast
of Santa Cruz, barrio of Gapan, and chased them until exhausted; killed one, got his rifle and some ammunition, and wounded several.
Wounded in action, January 12, 1901:
Private Edward D. Mason, company C.
January 20.Lieut. Wheeler, with a
detachment of company A, met a band of insurgents near Jaen;
routed them, captured six rifles,
three shotguns, one revolver, and 300 rounds of ammunition. No casualties.
January 25.General Funston and Lieut.
Sheldon, with a detachment of twenty-five men of the regiment,
struck a body of insurgents
near Candaba swamp; killed five, wounded eight, pursued them to Malimba river, where they came in contact again and killed two more
one the notorious bandit, Tagunton; wounded one, captured one rifle, one revolver, two ponies, and some correspondence and ammunition.
Killed while quelling a fray at San Isidro, February 3, 1901:
Private Thomas Murphy, company I.
February 12.Lieut. Sheldon, with mounted
detachment of fifteen men, had a skirmish with thirty insurgents
on Bule river;
routed them and found fifteen dead. No casualties.
Letter from a Soldier in Company F of
the 22nd Infantry, stationed at Arayat, and postmarked at
the South Dagupan & Manila Railway Post Office, February 11, 1901
Philatelic cover courtesy of
stamp collection "PHILIPPINEN"
The following report was submitted to the
Commanding General, Deptartment of Northern Luzon,
in March of 1901 by Captain John J. Crittenden:
Operations of Twenty-second Infantry during the month of February, 1901.
Headquarters Twenty-second U. S. Infantry,
Arayat, Pampanga, Luzon, P. I., March 9, 1901. The Adjutant-general, Department Of Northern Luzon.
Sir: I have the honor to make the following report of operations for the month of February, 1901:
February 6. Mounted
detachment, 15 men, returned from vicinity Arayat, having
completed map of territory extending from barrio Baliti to within
short distance of Chico River. Companies E and F performed usual escort and patrol duties during the month. Arms captured and turned in by alcalde during month:
One Remington rifle, short barrel.
Detachments from Company M, Twenty-second Infantry, scouted
country in vicinity of camp and patrolled roads during month.
No signs of insurgents. No arms captured or surrendered.
February 1. Lieutenant Clinton, with detachment 39 men, Company L, Twenty-second Infantry, reconnoitered country to Baluarte, barrio San Miguel. Distance traveled, 22 miles.
Lieutenant Clinton, with detachment 39 men, Company L,
Twenty-second Infantry, surrounded barrio Santa Rita, pueblo
Cabiao, capturing 7 insurgents.
One native resisting with bolo was killed.
Mounted detachment 13 men, Company L, Twenty-second Infantry,
reconnoitered country to barrio Baluarte, San Miguel; thence
Rio Casalucan to Mandili in Pinag; thence across Pinag to Cabiao. Distance traveled, 32 miles.
Detachment of 21 men, Company L, Twenty-second Infantry, left
Cabiao 12 midnight, crossed Rio Grande and scouted country
between Rio Grande and Rio Chico. Returned Cabiao on 23d. Distance, 15 miles.
Mounted detachment made frequent scouts in vicinity during remainder of month.
Following arms captured and turned in by the alcalde during the month: One carbine (make unknown), 1 shotgun, 1 revolver, 2 shotgun barrels.
February 1. Lieutenant
Sheldon, with mounted detachment and 8 men, Troop G, Fourth
Cavalry, left San Isidro at 12.15 p. m., in pursuit of band of
who had been in San Vicente de Cabiao the previous night. Scouted to within 2 miles of San Miguel de Mayumo, thence to Palo Palo, and returned same day.
No trace of enemy. Distance, 25 miles.
February 4. Lieutenant
Sheldon, with mounted detachment, left San Isidro at 7 a. m. and
arrived at Peñaranda at 9.15 a. m. Detachment returned to San
arriving at 11.45 a. m. Distance, 22 miles. Lieutenant Sheldon remained at Peñaranda, and took command of Troop B, squadron of Philippine cavalry,
per verbal orders commanding general Fourth district, Department Northern Luzon.
February 8. One Colt's repeating carbine turned in to Captain Kreps by secret service natives, who had captured it near Tambo River.
February 9. Lieutenant Sheldon left Peñaranda at 2.30 p. m. and returned to his proper station (San Isidro). Distance, 11 miles.
Lieutenant Sheldon and mounted detachment, with Acting Asst.
Surg.. G. E. Chamberlain, U. S. A., left San Isidro at 10.45 a.
m. and proceeded
to Malimba River; thence to Santo Cristo and Bulijan, after Sixto Francisco. One mile northeast of Bulijan burned two large insurgent cuartels and quantity of rice.
Enemy had left five minutes previously. Proceeded to Cabo and Bundoc nañg Mapait, where he surprised Maj. Jose Azareon and 30 armed soldiers.
Enemy discovered party, and opened fire at 300 yards. Lieutenant Sheldon was greatly delayed by a deep ravine, but followed the insurgents, who ran and
scattered in the tall grass. Engagement lasted five minutes. Enemy left 5 dead on the field, but got away with arms. Lieutenant Sheldon captured 2 ponies and
1 Krag carbine boot. No casualties on our side. Returned to San Isidro at 8.15 p. m. Distance, 35 miles.
14. Lieutenant Sheldon, with mounted detachment, left San Isidro
at 4 a.m.; proceeded to Taboatin. Captured 1 insurgent sergeant;
1 Remington rifle, short-barreled, and 1 shotgun, double-barreled, were turned over to Lieutenant Sheldon. Returned same day. Distance, 12 miles.
Lieutenant Sheldon, with mounted detachment, left San Isidro at 2
p. m. and proceeded to Manicling, thence to Taboatin and Tambo
Captured 1 insurgent soldier, who had cut the telegraph wire in December. Distance, 20 miles.
Lieutenant Sheldon, with mounted detachment, left San Isidro at 2
p. m. for San Fernando, Pampanga, which was reached at 11 p. m.
Distance, 33 miles.
Lieutenant Sheldon was acting under telegraphic orders from commanding general, Fourth district, Department Northern Luzon, to join him in Manila.
Lieutenant Sheldon, with mounted detachment, and Acting Assistant
Surgeon Chamberlain left San Isidro at 8 a. m. and proceeded to
Found a native shot through breast by insurgents at about 2 p. m. Lieutenant Sheldon then proceeded to Palo Palo and Tambo River in pursuit of Fagan.
Natives, miles away from each other, said that Fagan had been near their fields same morning with 16 men, all armed. Fagan's guide was captured,
but trail was lost. Lieutenant Sheldon remained all day scouting along Malimba River and returned to San Isidro at 5 p. m. Distance, 34 miles.
"Fagan" was Corporal David Fagen, a deserter from the
US 24th Infantry, who joined the Filipino Insurrectionist cause
in late 1899.
Promoted to Captain in the Filipino Army by General Jose Alejandrino, Fagen carried out guerrila operations against the US Army
and pro-American Phillipinos, until his reported death in December of 1901.)
Eighteen natives took the oath of allegiance during the month.
Arms captured during month: One Colt's repeating rifle,
1 Remington rifle, short barrel, 1 shotgun, double-barrel.
February 4. Juan Leída, insurgent leader, and two followers surrendered and took oath of allegiance.
Captain Hamilton with mounted detachment pursued band of ladrones
which had entered barrio Luason and stolen 9 carabaos
and 1 pony to Bantog-Bobi, west of Rio Chico, without success. Returned to San Antonio. Distance traveled, 16 miles.
Arms captured during month: One Krag rifle; 1 Remington rifle; 1 revolver, small; 57 cartridges, caliber 30 (Krag); 10 Remington cartridges, caliber, 45.
During first part of
month mounted detachment kept vicinity thoroughly patrolled
Detachment consisting of 1 sergeant, 2 corporals, and 19 privates
garrisoned Manicling and are still on duty there.
February 24-25. Lieutenant Wheeler with mounted detachment, 12 men, scouted country between Jaen and Zaragoza.
February 2-3. Captain
Dowdy and Lieutenant Curtis with detachment 20 men scouted up
Taboatin River for 15 miles to barrio Taboatin. Turning north
from barrio thoroughly reconnoitered country between Taboatin and Cabanatuan, returning to Santa Rosa on 3d. Distance traveled, 30 miles.
5. Captain Dowdy with Lieutenant Graham, Acting Assistant Surgeon
Griffis, and mounted detachment of 10 men scouted country between
Santa Rosa and Aliaga. No enemy encountered, but natives reported many ladrones vicinity San Juan de Guimba.
February 6. Same
detachment, accompanied by detachment Ilocanos, under Lieutenant
Milne, left Talavera and scouted north and west of Santo Domingo.
Proceeded to Santa Rita and, being informed that ladrones used village for rendezvous and finding all but three houses vacated, the unoccupied houses were burned.
Returned to Santa Rosa via Talavera. Distance traveled, 85 miles.
Lieutenants Curtis and Graham with detachment 29 men
reconnoitered country through foothills and over divide into
arriving at Bongabon on 17th and returned Santa Rosa on 18th. Distance traveled, 60 miles. Section of territory traversed virtually uninhabited,
but well watered and not difficult to travel.
Arms captured during month: None.
Arms surrendered during month: Eleven Remington rifles, 2 Remington carbines, 1 revolver, caliber 45; 36 rounds ammunition.
February 8. Company K,
Twenty-second Infantry, commanded by Capt. J. R. Seyburn, changed
station from Jaen to Gapan, per Special Order, No. 16,
Headquarters Fourth District, Department of Northern Luzon. Distance traveled, 5 miles.
Usual garrison and patrol duty performed during month.
No arms captured or surrendered.
Total arms captured during month: One rifle,
Krag-Jorgensen; 3 rifles, Remington; 2 carbines, 2 shotguns, 2
revolvers, 57 cartridges, caliber 30, Krag;
10 cartridges, caliber 45, Remington.
Total arms surrendered
during month: Eleven rifles, Remington; 2 carbines, Remington; 1
revolver, 36 cartridges, caliber 45, Remington. Civil affairs
administered during month.
Very respectfully, J. J. Crittenden,
Captain, Twenty-second Infantry, Commanding.
Ed., In March of 1901 Brigadier General of
Volunteers Frederick Funston, along with a detachment of Macabee
captured Aguinaldo. Within a month two of Aguinaldo's most important generals surrendered to American forces.
Isolated bands of insurgent soldiers carried on the guerilla war for another year however.
April 17.Lieut. Ripley, commanding a
detachment of Ilocano scouts, struck enemy near Santer, Nueva
killed one, captured two rifles, and burnt cuartels.
April 20.Lieut. Ripley, commanding
detachment of Ilocano scouts, encountered enemy eight miles south
of Irurulengin mountains;
killed one, wounded three, and burnt nine cuartels.
April 24.Lieut. Sheldon, commanding a
detachment of the regiment, while scouting between Bengaben and
struck a small band of insurgents; killed two, scattered the rest, and captured one rifle.
April 28.The celebrated Filipino general,
Alejandrino, accompanied by an orderly, both armed, entered the
of the regimental commander, Major R. T. Yeatman, at night, and coolly stated that he had come to arrange terms of surrender.
Major Yeatman succeeded in getting a message to the guard house, and upon arrival of the guard the terms of surrender were quickly arranged.
Previous to this, Alejandrino had eluded repeated attempts to capture him.
May 19.The insurgent general Lacuna and
his entire command surrendered to General Funston at San Isidro,
This ended armed resistance in the department.
June 30, 1901, the regiment was
stationed as follows:
Headquarters, field, staff, band and companies B, C, and D, at San Isidro.
Company A, at Jaen.
Companies E and F, at Arayat.
Company G, at Apalit.
Company H, at Baler, Principe.
Company I, at: San Antonio.
Company K, at Gapan.
Company L, at Cabiao.
Company M, at Mexico and Santa Ana.
July 1901, Twenty-second
Infantry: Headquarters, field, staff and band remained at San
Isidro during month. Company E changed station from Arayat,
Pampanga, to Balanga, Bataan, arriving latter place 23d on U. S. gunboat Napindan. Distance 73 miles; relieved Sixtieth Company Coast Artillery July 25,
and 26th sent detachment of 20 men to Orani, Bataan, for station ; distance 5 miles. Company M, from Santa Ana and Mexico to Arayat, Pampanga,
on July 22 by marching 8 miles. Left Arayat, Pampanga, on July 23, and proceeded to Orani on U. S. gunboat Napindan, relieving a company of
Coast Artillery there and sending a detachment of 22 men to Mariveles for station. Distance 80 miles. Detachment 25 men took station at Penaranda,
Nueva Eciia, July 22, distance 10 miles. Country generally quiet.
August 1901: Twenty-second
Infantry: Companies I, K, L, left their stations of San Antonio,
Gapan, and Cabanatuan, Nueva Ecija, respectively,
and proceeded to Manila, on 26th instant. Journeys were by cascos from Cabiao to Calumpit and on to Manila by rail, arriving and taking station 28th instant.
September 1901: Twenty-second
Infantry: Company B has continued on duty at military prison at
San Isidro, Nueva Ecija, as prison guard.
On September 28 Companies A and D, and, on the 29th, Companies F and G left their stations and proceeded to Manila for station. Companies A and D,
by land to Cabiao and by cascos to Calumpit and thence by rail to Manila, reaching that city September 30. Company E performed garrison duty at Balanga
until September 10, on which date it proceeded by cascos 35 miles to Mariveles, at which station performed garrison duty during remainder of month.
Company H performed garrison duty at Baler, Principe.
September 29, eleven insurgents,
formerly attached to Aguinaldo's forces, as Aguinaldo's
Palanan bodyguard, surrendered to Sergeant Wolf,
Company H at Casiguran, Principe. Seven rifles and 1 revolver turned in.
October 1901, a detachment of 25
men under First Lieutenant Raymond Sheldon, battalion adjutant,
was stationed at Peñaranda until October 17,
on which date the detachment was withdrawn and the station abandoned.
November 6, a small party of
insurgents attacked at night, a detachment of Company H under
Corporal Linz, at Casiguran;
the insurgents were repulsed with losses of 1 killed 3 wounded, 2 Mauser rifles were captured. Privates Mason and Breckinridge
of Company H were wounded.
November 16, a band of ladrones
fired on town of Jaen, Nueva Ecija, night of November 16. Band
reported to have had 6 rifles and 1 revolver;
leader unknown. Supposed to have been Damian de la Cruz. Band dispersed by native police of Jaen, No casualties. Mounted detachment,
Twenty-second Infantry from San Isidro, under First Lieutenant Raymond Sheldon, out several days searching for band, but failed to encounter them.
Ed., On November 11, 1901, the
Regimental history notes that Colonel John W. French died of
and Colonel James Miller became Commander of the 22nd Infantry Regiment.
Late in December came the welcome orders for the regiment's return to the States.
Ed., The following promotions and appointments in the 22nd Infantry were recorded for the year 1901:
James Miller was promoted to Colonel and appointed Commander of the Regiment
The following officers of the Regiment were promoted to the rank of Lieutenant Colonel in 1901:
W. P. Rogers
The following officers of the Regiment were promoted to the rank of Major in 1901:
John J. Crittenden
The following officers of the Regiment were promoted to the rank of Captain in 1901:
Albert C. Dalton
Peter W. Davison
Hanson E. Ely
William H. Wassell
Orrin R. Wolfe
Frederick Stritzinger, Jr.
Lorrain T. Richardson
The following officers of the Regiment were promoted to the rank of First Lieutenant in 1901:
Henry A. Ripley
James R. Goodale
William G. Doane
Edward W. Terry
Above narrative taken from the 1904 Regimental
History and the annual Reports to the War Department
with additional items and comments by the website editor
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